Hormone Replacement Therapy


Philip Borgardt, MD FACP

Call today

805-540-5544

Start Feeling Your BEST!


Supplements and Vitamins





Micronutrients

Micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) are essential for life but in lesser quantities than macronutrients.  The primary source of micronutrients should come from the food you eat.  Unfortunately, many of today's foods are not as rich as they once were in vitamins and minerals because of genetic manipulation and food processing.  That is why dietary supplements are an important addition to you diet.  The doses recommended are for the average adult patient.


Vitamin A

Vitamin A: a naturally occurring group of retinoids from plant sources, is one of the building blocks for a vibrant immune system. 

Vitamin A, an antioxidant, is a fat-soluble vitamin that helps prevent infection and also prevents mucular degeneration. 

Vitamin A also helps slow the aging process and assists in protein metabolism.  Taking too much Vitamin A could be toxic,

especially for the liver.  Therefore, we recommend taking no more than 8000 IU of Vitamin A per day, to be obtained

from your diet and supplementation.  Foods rich in Vitamin A are carrots, cantaloupe, beet greens, pumpkin, sweet potatoes

and spinach.


The B Vitamins


All of the B Vitamins are important for proper metabolism


Vitamin B1: Vitamin B1, Thiamin, helps convert carbohydrates into energy.  Thiamin is found in beef, pork, oatmeal, beans and oranges.  The disease beriberi can be caused by a lack of thiamin in the diet.  Symptoms of thiamin deficiency include difficulty walking, swollen limbs, overall weakness, heart enlargement, depression and various mood changes.  Severe thiamin deficiency can destroy brain cells and impair memory. 

We recommend 100 mg of thiamin daily.


Vitamin B2: Riboflavin, or Vitamin B2, is crucial for many activities in the body. Vitamin B2 is a powerful anitoxidant and also helps convert amino acids into neurotransmitters, which are necessary for proper brain function.  Vitamin B2 deficiency can impair vision and also result in severe dermatitis.  Good sources of riboflavin are fish, poultry, asparagus, broccoli, yogurt, and spinach.  It would be difficult to get too much riboflavin since it is secreted in the urine, two hours after ingestion.  It causes the urine to have a bright yellow color.  Alcohol and birth control pills intefer with riboflavin absorption. 

We recommend 100 mg of Vitamin B2 daily to be obtained from your diet and supplementation.





Vitamin B3: Vitamin B3, Niacin, assists in lowering cholesterol levels.  Niacin is found in tuna, chicken breasts, some fortified cereals and veal.  Too much niacin may cause liver damage.  Niacin has also proven useful in certain allergic conditions because it prevents the release of histamine.  Since niacin may cause flushing, nervousness, headaches, itching, diarrhea and nausea, it should be taken under the supervision of a trained physician. 

We recommend 50 mg of niacin and 150 mg of niacinamide daily to be obtained from your diet and from supplementation.


Vitamin B5: Vitamin B5, Pantothenic Acid, is the anti stress vitamin.  It is crucial for the formulation of anitbodies, essential for the production of adrenal hormones, assists in the  proprer utilization of vitamins by the body and helps convert protein, carbohydrates and fat into energy.  Vitamin B5 may be found in saltwater fish, pork, nuts, mushrooms, various fresh vegetables, eggs, liver and whole wheat. 

We recommend 400 mg daily  of Vitamin B5 to be obtained from diet your diet and supplementation.


Vitamin B6: Vitamin B6, Pyridoxine, is necessary for metabolism, essential fatty acids, and assisting in the creation of necessary neurotransmitters.  Vitamin B6 is found in avocados, chicken, beef, soybeans, brown rice, eggs and peanuts.  A shortage of vitamin B6 can lead to various types of nerve damage and insulin resistance.  Too much Vitamin B6 may cause various nerve disorders or photosensitivity.  We recommend 100 mg of Vitamin B6 daily to be obtained from your diet and from supplementation.




Vitamin B12:  Vitamin B12, the fatty covering that protects nerve fibers in your body is called the myelin sheath.  Vitamin B12 is necessary in the production of the myelin sheath.  Severs deficiencies of Vitamin B12 may cause deterioration of the myelin sheath, which is evident in patients with multiple sclerosis.  Low levels of Vitamin B12 may cause increased homocysteine (a substance that is formed from protein metabolism) levels which, in turn, may cause more clotting in the arterial walls.  Vitamin B12 is important in the production of red blood cells.  Vitamin B12 can be found in ham, cooked oysters, crab, tuna, salmon,clams and herring.  We recommend 400 mcg of Vitamin B12 to be obtained primarily from your diet


Biotin: Biotin is a B Complex vitamin which is needed to process the protein and fat we consume.  Biotin is found in eggs, cereals and milk.  People with elevated blood sugar levels seem to have lower Biotin levels.  We recommemd 600 mcg daily to be obtained primarily from your diet.


                          Vitamin C

                                 Vitamin C: Vitamin C is an important antioxidant along with beta-carotene and Vitamin E.  An antioxidant destroys free radicals                                         (unpaired electrons that stay in the body too long and cause damage) by destroying itself.  Antioxidants must replaced                 continually because their lifespan is quite short.


Vitamin C helps regulate the release of insulin in the body, helps the healing process and promotes collagen growth.  Depletion of Vitamin C can cause scurvy (rare today) whose symptoms may include bleeding gums, hemorrhages, dementia, muscle pain, joint pain and bone pain.  Vitamin C may be found in many types of berries, oranges, various melons, green and red bell peppers, kiwi fruit, broccoli, cauliflower and tomatoes.  We recommend 100 mg of Vitamin C per day, to be obtained for your diet and supplementation.


Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and is needed to transport phosphorus and calcium in the body so that the bone growth occurs in children and bone remineralization occurs in adults. Vitamin D enhances the immune system, assists in the regulation of a person's heartbeat, is needed for proper thyroid function, helps prevent muscle weakness and helps in normalizing the blood clotting process.  Vitamin D is essential for a healthy skeletal system and healthy teeth.  New studies show that low Vitamin D is associated with breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, MS, diabetes, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, tooth loss, and viral infections.  Other sources of Vitamin D may be found in eggs, sardines, halibut, salmon, herring, tuna, sweet potatoes and fortified milk.  Rickets, a childhood disease causing bone deformation is caused by Vitamin D deficiency.  For a person with a normal Vitamin D level we recommend 1000 IU of Vitamin D daily, to be obtained fro you diet and supplementation.  For people who have a deficiency, the dose can range up to 50,000 IU twice a week.  We recommend that you have your physician check your Vitamin D 25 H level before and after treatment with a goal of keeping you Vitamin D 60-80 ng/ml.





Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant.  It may be found in nuts and vegetable oils, sunflower seeds, wheat germ and spinach.  Vitamin E supplements are recommended because it is difficult to get enough Vitamin E from your diet.  It is important, not to take too much Vitamin E because it could intefere with blood coagulation.  Vitamin E, taken in proper dosage, can help prevent cancer, boost the immune system function, alleviate respiratory problems and help fight heart disease.  There is also a body of research that touts the effects of Vitamin E for improving brain function.  Vitamin E is fat soluble and therefore stays in the body longer  than water soluble vitamins such as B vitamins and vitamin C.  We recommend 400 IU per day of Vitamin E.


Vitamin K

Vitamin K's primary responsibilty is to help blood clot.  Your intestinal bacteria makes approximately half of the Vitamin K you need.  Since newborns do not have enough Vitamin K in their body at birth, they are usually given a shot of Vitamin K when they are born.  Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin.  Vitamin K is needed for  the metabolism of osteocalcin, which is the protein in bone tissue.  Vitamin K also plays a role in transforming glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver.  Good sources of Vitamin K are broccoli, green leafy vegetables, egg yolks, oatmeal and soybeans.  We recommend

60 mcg of Vitamin K.


Beta Carotene

Beta Carotene, a precursor to Vitamin A, has been known for its anitoxidant effects in the prevention of many cancers and heart

disease.  Cantaloupe, spinach, various dark green leafy vegetables, romaine lettuce and apricots are all good sources of

Beta-Carotene. Recent research has shown that foods rich in Beta-Carotene are also rich in lycopene, lutien, zeaxantin, and

alpha carotene which are all strong disease fighting carotenes. 20,000 IU of Beta-Carotene per day is recommended.


Folic Acid

Folic Acid is involved in many activities in the body.  Because Folic Acid is necessary for nerve formation and regulation and especially, nerve formation in the fetus. Women, in their child bearing years, whether pregnant or not, should routinely take supplemental Folic Acid (400 mcg daily) to help prevent serious birth defects such as spinal bifida and other neutonal disorders.  Folic Acid help in the formation of red blood cells, the production of energy, the formation of white blood cells and is crucial for the synthesis of DNA, which is the genetic code of your body. Adequate intake of Folic Acid has been shown to be helpful in treating some anxiety disorders and depression.  Women with adequate Folic Acid levels in their bodies had a lesser incidence of cervical dysplasia (abnormal cells in the cervix) which can be a precursor to cervical cancer.  Folic Acid may be found in many fruits and vegetables.  Good sources of Folic Acid are navy beans, asparagus, broccoli, okra, spinach, and brussel sprouts.  We recommend 400 mcg to 800 mcg of Folic Acid to be obtained from your diet and from supplementation.


Lecithin

Lecithin (Phosphatidyicholine):  Cell membranes are primarily composed of lecithin, a fatty substance found in every cell in the body  Lecithin is composed of the B vitamin choline, linoleic acid and the vitamin inositol, which is needed hair growth, helps reduce cholesterol levels and assists in preventing hardening of the arteries.  Lecithin assists with fat metabolism, improves brain function and helps in the absorption of Vitamin A and Vitamin B1.  Lecithin may be found in egg yolks, grains, fish and various legumes.  We recommend 700 mg of lecitihin and 200 mg of inositol, to be obtained from your diet and from supplements.





Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA)

Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) is a primary ingredient in folic acid.  It also helps in the metabolism of Vitamin B5.  PABA is a powerful antioxidant that helps prevent sunburn and skin cancer.  PABA helps red blood cell formations, assists in protein metabolism and is integral in maintaining proper intestinal health.  Good sources of PABA are various organ meats such as kidney and liver, whole grains, spinach, molasses and mushrooms.  We recommend 50 mg of PABA daily, to be obtained from your diet and from supplementation.